Repost of an Men's Nike Lebron 12 DATA High Tops Black Multi color Sz 11.5 from 2009 by Charles S. Viar (Twitter: present chairman of the Center for Intelligence Studies in Washington D.C. (reposted here for layout reasons; in accordance with the copyright notice at the bottom of the essay):
Nike Zoom Maxcat 4 Spikes Running Shoes Fire Pink Black 549150-601 Mens Size 7
Charles S. Viar
Although the origins of intelligence have been lost in the mists of time, the practice is at least as ancient as warfare. In what is perhaps the oldest written reference to an intelligence operation, The Book of Numbers recounts God’s command that Moses dispatch a reconnaissance team to scout the Israelite advance upon the Promised Land:
Send thou men, that they may search the land of Canaan, which I give unto the Children of Israel. Of every tribe of their fathers shall ye send a man, everyone a ruler among them…
Had the Canaanites possessed an effective counterintelligence capability, the story of the Israelite assault might have ended differently. For even a minimal foreknowledge of their intentions and capabilities would have made it possible for the Canaanites to organize a more effective defense. But as may be inferred from the Bible, they failed to detect the operation directed against them.New Nike Air Shake Ndestrukt 880869 101 Triple White Dennis Rodman MenNike Hyperdunk 524882 Mens Black/White New! Big RARE Sizes 16 and up
For that, they paid a fearsome price.
Nike Zoom Code Elite 3/4 TD Football Cleats (12.5, Black/Metallic Silver)
Narrowly defined as “evaluated information,” intelligence is a dynamic process that involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data to national policymakers and other government officials of lesser rank. Intelligence serves to forewarn them of likely actions, events, and developments within their sphere of responsibility; and aids in matching available resources to threats and opportunities alike. As such, it is the sine qua non of effective statecraft.
More broadly, intelligence also serves as a force-multiplier. Much as Archimedes Lever makes it possible to magnify mechanical force transmitted across space, covert and clandestine intelligence operations make it possible for states to enhance the power they project beyond their frontiers.New Nike Men's Shoes University of Kentucky UK Train Speed 4 Sz 11 844102-411Nike Zoom Maxcat 4 Men’s Spikes Track Shoes 549150 413 Blue Size 10 NO SPIKES History is littered with examples of small and middling states exercising disproportionate influence through the deft application of secret intelligence.
Given the enormous – and occasionally decisive – advantages conferred by effective intelligence in the Great Game of Nations, well-governed states seek to maximize the effectiveness of their own intelligence services and to protect themselves against hostile services deployed against them.Nike Men's "Zoom Span 2" Black - Red Training Shoes Size 14 NewNike Men's TANJUN Running Shoes Black/Black-Anthracite 812654-001 c Domestic security typically provides one level of defense, and counterintelligence another.
Nike Zoom Live 852421-002 Stealth Dark Grey White Volt Men's Basketball Shoes
Although counterintelligence has been recognized as an integral component of state security since the Chinese military scholar Sun Tzu published The Art of War in the Fourth or Fifth century BC, the concept remains muddled. For almost two and a half millennia, the term itself has defied definition.
According to James Angleton, the legendary former Chief of CIA Counterintelligence, the term is ineffable. Although Angleton’s Deputy Chief for Operations generally concurred, he believed counterintelligence could nonetheless be described in terms of core functions. Mens Nike Veil Gyakusou Sz 9.5 black/Sail/Sail AH2181-001NIKE AIR MAX CAGE 554875 002 BLACK METALLIC WHITE MEN SHOES SIZE 5.5Angleton’s Deputy Chief for Analysis, however, disagreed with both. According to Raymond G. Rocca, counterintelligence is self-defined: it applies to any action undertaken to counter, i.e., negate, the efforts of hostile intelligence services.
Having studied under all three of the practitioners listed above, the writer of this paper eventually concluded Rocca’s understanding is more nearly correct; and has since argued that counterintelligence can be best illustrated by contrast. Where counterespionage – or security – seeks to neutralize individual spies and spy rings, counterintelligence attempts to neutralize hostile intelligence services as a whole.New Men's Nike Zoom All Out Low 2 Size 12 AJ0035 301(No Box Lid)
- Women’s Nike Air Vapormax Flyknit Size-9.5 “Glacier Blue” Platinum (849557 014)
- Fabulicious Women's Chic 26 Black Velvet/Satin/Black Matte Party Shoes
- Armani Jeans Trainers AM506/13 Shoes Men Size 11.5 gray black white yellow
- Gentleman/Lady BLACK SHOES MEN'S SIZE 13 Many varieties New design unique
- Kenneth Cole Reaction Camo House Blend Casual Shoes Sneakers Men's Size 8.5
- Propet Landon Sneaker - Men's Size 10H (3E) - Brown
- Men's Cole Haan Black Leather Penny Loafers US 8.5 M
- Amanda Smith Beige Brown Jeans Print Stretch Fabric Bardo Heels Boots 6.5M BN1
- VANS Womens Reily Beige Suede Leather Faux Fur Trim Boots Sz US 10
- Carlos by Carlos Santana Miles Ankle Boots 259, Black, 10 US / 40 EU
- Hot Women England Round Toe Winter Fashion Flats Lacu Up High Top Ankle Boots
- NEW DR. MARTENS WOMEN'S FLORA SLIP-ON BOOT BLACK LEATHER 7 & 8 MEDIUM $135
- Stacy Adams Men's Napa-Moc Toe Slip-on Oxford - Choose SZ/Color
- C-1523138 New Salvatore Ferragamo Lake Green Leather Loafers Shoes Size US 8 D
- Etnies Lo Cut II 2 LS White Blue Red Leather Mens Trainers
- Spenco Fusion 2 - Men's Orthotic Recovery Sandal Black - 9
- SOFTWALK Ladies 'SAN MARCOS' Leather Mules-BLACK Sz. 7 MEDIUM NIB
- $120 NEW NIKE CAPRI VINTAGE SHOES 1986 WHITE US BIG KIDS SZ 4.5
- Nike Pre Owned Black/White Sole Air Max Speed TurfUS Men's Size 10
- Dakota 8'' 529 Dark Brown Men's Work Boot 9M
- British Mens Leather Side Zip Ankle Boots Combat Knight Boots Punk Casual Shoes
- Magnum Mens 5" VIPER PRO 5 Side Zip SZ Black Army Combat Military Boots 5480
- MILWAUKEE Mens 9 D Black Leather Motorcycle Boots Road Captain MB433 Ex Cnd
- Hot Men Military Combat Boots Tactical Army Desert Hiking Patrol Trekking Canvas
- Gentlemen/Ladies Skechers USA Men's Segment-Dorton Chelsea Boot Various styles Preferred material Selling new products
- PVC CONVERSE CHUCK TAYLOR ALL STAR HIGH TOP BLACK SHOES SNEAKERS Sz 10 Dominatri
- Christian Louboutin Black Trottinette Boots/Booties Size US 9 Regular (M, B)
- Christian Louboutin Black New Boudubou Ostrich Daf Red High Heel Lady Daffodile Platform Ankle Boots/Booties Size US 10 Regular (M, B)
- Cole Haan Black Gladiator Sandals Size US 10 Regular (M, B)
- NIKE Mens AirJordan 1 KO High OG Basketball Shoes Jumpman White Color Size 10
- Arfango Alberto Moretti Men's Shoes slip ons black shiny 7 US 41 NEW
- Gentlemen/Ladies：PUMA Women's Fierce VR Wn Sneaker - Choose SZ/Color： Complete specifications
- Nike KD VII 653996-304 Easter Mens Size 12 Sneaker Basketball Shoe 158-11
- CALZATURA DONNA SNEAKERS ADIDAS TESSUTO GRIGIO - 4EF2
- NIKE ROSHE ONE FB GS 36-39 NEW rosheone rosherun run trainer kaishi free 5.0
- Puma Ignite Evoknit Women's Training Shoes Size 10
- Nine West Boot Size 8 Womens Black Suede Block Heel Thigh High Adjustable
- Nike Air Huarache Light Us9 EU42.5 UK8 Max 90 1 BW Classic Neu ungetragen
- NIKE TRAINER 1 MEN FASHION SNEAKERS US M MULTI-COLOR LEATHER
- Womens Thigh High Boots Black Slim Leather High Heels Warm Shoes Pointed Toe
- Easy Spirit Women's Niah Knee High Boot Black Suede Knee High Boots
- STUART WEITZMAN HIGHLAND OVER-THE-KNEE BOOTS SIZE 8.5 - WORN ONCE
- Franco Sarto Women's Andie Chain Kilted Loafer - Size 4M - Green
- Marc Jacobs Sienna Pompom Flat Espadrilles, Women's Size 7.5, Blue
- J Crew Collection Calf Hair T-Strap - size 8 - Black White Spots - e0024
- Tory Burch Sunny Flat Espadrilles Unbuckle Patent Shoe Size 61/2 Pre Owned
- Men/Women Tory burch ballet flats 8 High quality and low overhead Beautiful Strong heat and heat resistance
- Nike Air Huarache Women's Running Shoes Size 7
- Steve Madden BELIT Womens Belit Fashion Sneaker- Choose SZ/Color.
- Gentleman/Lady Nike Air Presto Women's Black/Black/Black/White 78068003 superior auction Modern and elegant
- ARIAT Womens Brown Leather Slip On Loafers Clogs Size 7.5B
- ara Women's Maris 45052 Black Fabric Slip-on Shoes
- ECCO, AURORA PEBBLE GRAIN DERBY SHOES, COCO BROWN, SIZE 45
- BALENCIAGA 18ss triple s Triple Sneaker black & red
- Men Canvas cut out boat mesh Shoes Leisure Weave Slip-On Chic Loafers Espadrille
- 2018 Spring Men's Faux Leather Plimsolls Outdoor Casual Ankle Canvas Shoes New
- Polo Ralph Lauren Greggory white low stretch canvas leather mens shoes
- St. John Brown Suede Over Knee Boots Heels Italian Size US 7
- Vintage Size 8 1980's Gimbel's Misty Burgundy Knit Sweater Boots Made in USA
- Calvin Klein Platinum White Leather Open Toe Ankle Boots Size 6 1/2 Medium
- Bottes STEPHANE GONTARD Stretch Taupe T 41 TRES BON ETAT
- New Muk Luks Gina Women's Gray Suede Sweater Sherpa Lined Zip Up Boots Size 6
- Converse Men's Point Star Leather Low Top Sneaker, - Choose SZ/Color
- Hogan Shoes Men's LOAFER Suede 39.5 / 7 Driving Moccasin Khaki NEW
- Emporio Armani Shoes Sneaker Sz. 42 Leather Man Black X4X211XF187-2 MAKE OFFER
- Men Reef Leather Smoothy Flip Flop Sandal RF000232 Bronze Brown 100% Authentic
NIKE MENS FREE RN MOTION FK 2017 RUNNING SHOES
In a more perfect world, intelligence services would aspire to comprehensive coverage of their targets. But in actual practice, physical, organizational, political, and budgetary constraints have traditionally forced them to limit their collection activities to data pertaining to the targeted state’s organization, capabilities, and intentions. More recently, intelligence services have been tasked with gathering financial, economic, and technical data as well; and with the development of remote collection techniques, the amount of raw data collected by major intelligence services has become staggering in both scope and volume.
From a theoretical standpoint, intelligence collection and analysis should not be especially difficult. But given the fact that intelligence services routinely devote a substantial portion of their resources to deception operations designed to deceive their adversaries, $200 Nike Mens Size 9 Untouchable 2 White Out Platinum Football Cleats Rarethe task is far more difficult than it first appears. Tables of organization and orders of battle can be faked, deployment patterns and readiness indicators manipulated, and communications traffic played for purpose. Indeed, almost any sort of intelligence data can be fabricated and fed to foreign intelligence services through sacrificial spies, dangles, false defectors, and dispatched agents.
This inherent vulnerability to hostile deception operations lays bare what Angleton formally referred to as the Epistemological Problem:NIKE SB CHECK SOLAR CANVAS PREMIUM BLACK / BLACK CARGO KHAKINIKE AIR TRAINER 1 MID SZ 8.5 DARK LODEN GUM LIGHT BROWN 317554 300.
Given the fact that foreign intelligence services routinely mount large and carefully crafted deception operations against us, how can we know what we believe to be true is actually so?
In less guarded moments, he called it “That damnable question.”
NIKE JORDAN TRUNNER LX BLACK/YELLOW MEN SIZE 11.5 NEW 897992 031
As intelligence practitioners will attest, it is a damnable question indeed. Nonetheless, there are two solutions to the problem – one partial, the other complete.
The first solution is to look at intelligence data in terms of a jigsaw puzzle extending across time. MENS NIKE AIR MAX SIZE 9 NIKE AIR VISI PRO NEWAfter fitting together as many of the pieces as possible, one may flag those that are known to be true beyond doubt. Subsequent pieces that fit with those may be presumed true, in the absence of contrary evidence.
Although this approach has considerable merit – including especially the way it facilitates intuitive judgments – the results it generates are both probabilistic and tentative. The likelihood that new data may significantly alter the pattern is high.
In contrast, the second solution can provide definitive answers – but only rarely, Size 12.5 Nike Dunk Low Flyknit University Red/White-Grey Mens Shoes 917746-600when two relatively unlikely events occur simultaneously: 1) a high-level penetration agent confirms the validity of specific intelligence data, and 2) a code break “backstops” the veracity of the confirming agent. In the world of intelligence, certainty depends upon serendipity.
The recruitment of high-level penetration agents is rare, and code breaks are even more so. They occur together perhaps once a decade, and when they do intelligence analysts emerge from their garrets to enjoy a brief moment of clarity. But when the agent is lost or the codes are changed, they are condemned to wander once more through what Angleton termed “The Wilderness of Mirrors” – an Epistemological Hell from which neither truth nor falsehood may be surely obtained.
NEW NIKE ALPHA SENSORY TURF SHOES MENS SIZE 9 854312 404 RETAIL 0
Determining the validity of intelligence data thus depends in part on recruiting from the enemy’s ranks senior political office holders or high-ranking government officials, and in part upon breaking their codes. But once affected, these unlikely circumstances open a window to other intriguing possibilities – including, Nike Mens "Air Max Ivo" Ocean Fog Training Shoes Multiple Size NIBNike HyperVenom X Proximo Tech Craft 2.0 IC Men's Soccer Shoe 852478 001 Sz 11.5specifically, offensive counterintelligence operations designed to penetrate, infiltrate, and suborn the target’s intelligence service in order to play it back against the state it serves. The ultimate goal of such operations is to entice or provoke the targeted state into undertaking ruinous and self-destructive actions.Men's Nike Air Navy Blue Baseball Athletic Shoes Cleats Size 10 Hi TopMENS NIKE AIR FORCE ONE 1 TAN KHAKI LINEN 488298 701 SZ 9.5 FREE SHIP
As Angleton observed, successful politicians and senior government officials are a remarkably homogenous lot. For the most part, they derive from roughly comparable social circumstances and share core formative experiences in common. Nike Men's Downshifter 7 Running Shoes Black/Black Size 12 852459-001Nike Lunarglide 8 Running Training Shoe White AA8676 101 Mens Sizes NEW $120They attend the same schools – or at least the same types of schools – and are imbued with the same canon. They also hold remarkably similar beliefs and values, and share certain characteristic attitudes regarding the larger world. Together these form something akin to a collective psyche, or what Angleton termed the “Mind of the State.”
If states have minds, they also have states of mind – and as with individuals, it is their state of mind that makes them most vulnerable to deception. For a state of mind is a predisposition to belief or action; and if that predisposition can be accurately gauged,Nike Zoom Ja Fly 3 OC Unisex Spikes Track Shoes 882032 999 Men’s Size 12.5NIKE SB ZOOM STEFAN JANOSKI PREMIUM HIGH TAPE SZ 12 KHAKI TRACK RED 854321 261 tempting or provoking the targeted decision-makers to ruin becomes a plausible exercise in perception management.
New AUTHENTIC Nike Huarache Ultra Black Triple Blackout Tan 819847 002 Men 11.5
If there is a single failing common to decision-makers throughout history, it is an excessive faith in intelligence. For reasons that remain obscure, decision-makers seem unable or unwilling to grasp the implications of the Epistemological Problem Angleton described. Despite ample warnings, they almost invariably place far more credence in intelligence reports than they deserve; and it is upon this most basic failing that offensive counterintelligence plays.
In The Art of War, Sun Tzu wrote “Supreme excellence is to subdue the enemy without fighting” New Nike LT 2.1 Shark Football Cleats 349037-013 Shoes Menand argued this end may best be achieved by manipulating the “Golden Threads” of intelligence – that is, the lines of communications that connect agents recruited from within the enemy’s camp to one’s own. The first Golden Thread may be activated by sacrificing deliberately misinformed low-level agents for capture, NIKE MENS FLEX 2017 RN RUNNING SHOESdangling double agents for enemy recruitment, and dispatching false defectors to the enemy’s camp. The second is brought into play by querying the agent-in-place to determine how the enemy decision-makers have interpreted the false information they delivered. If the information evokes the intended state of mind, the false message can be reinforced by repeating the process in different ways. If not, it can be modulated until it does.
By these means offensive counterintelligence operations can create a false picture of reality in the minds of targeted decision-makers, much as an artist paints an image upon a sheet of canvass. Brush stroke by brush stroke, the attacking service can exploit the enemy intelligence service it suborned to systematically manipulate the Mind of the State.
Kobe Nike 852425-064 Size 17 Black Mamba Triple Black Shoes Air
The many critics of offensive counterintelligence argue that strategic deception operations of the size and scale suggested above are far too complex and complicated to be practical, as they are doomed to eventually collapse under their own weight. [718948-600] AIR JORDAN FUTURE LOW RED BLACK WHITE MENS SNEAKERS Choose Size NEWThe criticism is true at least in part, but nonetheless disingenuous. Intelligence operations of any sort have a relatively short shelf life; and unless shut down by those who initiated them or uncovered by their intended targets, they will ALL eventually collapse for similar cause.
Perhaps more to the point, modern history is strewn with examples of successful strategic deceptions including the TRUST operation of the 1920’s, which saved the nascent Soviet state from ruin; the Soviet-sponsored WIN operation that forced the United States to abandon its post-war efforts to liberate Eastern Europe; and the Anglo-American deception operation that made possible the successful invasion of Normandy in 1944. All of these operations were conducted in the manner outlined above, and each inflicted massive damage upon the states they targeted.
Unfortunately, the United States abandoned its national counterintelligence capability in December of 1974 – and with it, the ability to mount large-scale strategic deception operations. Redefined and re-envisioned by successive administrations, NIKE ROSHE LD - 1000 SZ 12 GYM RED BLACK SAIL 844266 601counterintelligence had been reduced to little more than a security function until the Clinton Administration partially resurrected it after disastrous and overlapping penetrations of the CIA and the FBI were uncovered in the 1990’s. Expanded and reorganized in the aftermath of 9-11, a National Counterintelligence Executive now exists as a semi-autonomous supervisory agency. And yet despite the many long overdue reforms that have been undertaken since 2001, U.S. counterintelligence remains hobbled by an obtuse and legalistic definition, conceptual confusion,NIKE ROSHERUN NM BR SZ 11 LIGHT RETRO WHITE VOLT ROSHE BREEZE 644425 402 tangled jurisdictions, and – above all – by institutional timidity. For while offensive counterintelligence operations are now officially recognized, they remain tightly controlled and rarely sanctioned. They are tactical operations, most often mounted in reprisal.
Despite ample modern precedents, strategic deception operations of the sort advocated by Sun Tzu and refined by Angleton remain beyond the pale. This is unfortunate and – for those that seek to limit the suffering caused by armed conflict – deeply disconcerting.Nike Lunar Hyperrev Ext Olive Green And White Size 12 New In BoxNIKE DUALTONE RACER PRM RUNNING SNEAKERS Size 11.5 Men’s
For in the Great Game of Nations, offensive counterintelligence remains the only plausible means for achieving victory without war. For if only in theory, it is the primary offensive instrument of state.
Published by the Center for Intelligence Studies.Nike Jordan Flight Runner 715572-603 Men's Size US 9 NewMen's Vintage 1997 White & Black NIKE AIR Hi-Tops Basketball Sneakers Sz-9.5
1016 K Street NE. Washington, DC. 20002
202 / 399-0292
Copyright 2009. This paper may be reproduced in part or in whole for civic or educational purposes, provided that context is preserved and full attribution is given