Repost of an Coconuts by Matisse Lambert Boots/Booties Size US 9 Regular (M, B) from 2009 by Charles S. Viar (Twitter: present chairman of the Center for Intelligence Studies in Washington D.C. (reposted here for layout reasons; in accordance with the copyright notice at the bottom of the essay):
Madden Girl Brown Zipped Cognac Boots/Booties Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B)
Charles S. Viar
Although the origins of intelligence have been lost in the mists of time, the practice is at least as ancient as warfare. In what is perhaps the oldest written reference to an intelligence operation, The Book of Numbers recounts God’s command that Moses dispatch a reconnaissance team to scout the Israelite advance upon the Promised Land:
Send thou men, that they may search the land of Canaan, which I give unto the Children of Israel. Of every tribe of their fathers shall ye send a man, everyone a ruler among them…
Had the Canaanites possessed an effective counterintelligence capability, the story of the Israelite assault might have ended differently. For even a minimal foreknowledge of their intentions and capabilities would have made it possible for the Canaanites to organize a more effective defense. But as may be inferred from the Bible, they failed to detect the operation directed against them.Dansko Black Strappy Leather 41/10.5 *min. Wear* Sandals Size US 10.5 Regular (M, B)Enzo Angiolini Black Florelli Formal Shoes Size US 6 Regular (M, B)
For that, they paid a fearsome price.
Kenneth Cole Black Gentle Souls By Boots/Booties Size US 8 Regular (M, B)
Narrowly defined as “evaluated information,” intelligence is a dynamic process that involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data to national policymakers and other government officials of lesser rank. Intelligence serves to forewarn them of likely actions, events, and developments within their sphere of responsibility; and aids in matching available resources to threats and opportunities alike. As such, it is the sine qua non of effective statecraft.
More broadly, intelligence also serves as a force-multiplier. Much as Archimedes Lever makes it possible to magnify mechanical force transmitted across space, covert and clandestine intelligence operations make it possible for states to enhance the power they project beyond their frontiers.Volatile Platform Beige Sandals Size US 8 Regular (M, B)Steven by Steve Madden Black Blaire Sandals Size US 9 Regular (M, B) History is littered with examples of small and middling states exercising disproportionate influence through the deft application of secret intelligence.
Given the enormous – and occasionally decisive – advantages conferred by effective intelligence in the Great Game of Nations, well-governed states seek to maximize the effectiveness of their own intelligence services and to protect themselves against hostile services deployed against them.Sam Edelman Brown Nylee Wedges Size US 9 Regular (M, B)Vero Cuoio Burgundy Dessus Peau Boots/Booties Size EU 39 (Approx. US 9) Regular (M, B) Domestic security typically provides one level of defense, and counterintelligence another.
Ralph Lauren Black Leather Wrap-around 7.5) Sandals Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B)
Although counterintelligence has been recognized as an integral component of state security since the Chinese military scholar Sun Tzu published The Art of War in the Fourth or Fifth century BC, the concept remains muddled. For almost two and a half millennia, the term itself has defied definition.
According to James Angleton, the legendary former Chief of CIA Counterintelligence, the term is ineffable. Although Angleton’s Deputy Chief for Operations generally concurred, he believed counterintelligence could nonetheless be described in terms of core functions. BCBGMAXAZRIA Black/Gold Bcbg Formal Shoes Size US 8 Regular (M, B)Ellen Tracy Black Slingback Sandal Heels Formal Shoes Size US 9.5 Regular (M, B)Angleton’s Deputy Chief for Analysis, however, disagreed with both. According to Raymond G. Rocca, counterintelligence is self-defined: it applies to any action undertaken to counter, i.e., negate, the efforts of hostile intelligence services.
Having studied under all three of the practitioners listed above, the writer of this paper eventually concluded Rocca’s understanding is more nearly correct; and has since argued that counterintelligence can be best illustrated by contrast. Where counterespionage – or security – seeks to neutralize individual spies and spy rings, counterintelligence attempts to neutralize hostile intelligence services as a whole.Badgley Mischka Leather Peep Flats Size US 10 Regular (M, B)
- RIEKER DORIS 85 BRONZE 41385 SLIP-ON ANTI-STRESS LOAFER WOMEN'S 40 / 9 - 9.5
- Alegria Women's Kayla Clog Black Nappa 38 EU/8-8.5 M US
- NIB ECCO BIOM GRIP MENS SHOES CREEK SLIP-ON~7-7.5~GREY~AWESOME SHOE'S
- Church'S Fairfield Last81 Wing Chip Suede Shoes 026,403 Copper (40118
- Mens PU Ostrich Leather Buckle Slip On Snake Smart Formal Italian Design Shoes
- SKECHERS Men's 64260/BLK SEGMENT RILAR Black Size 11
- Dr MARTENS Casual Work Ankle Boots Size 8 US/7UK Men Made in ENGLAND
- Calvin Klein Aubrey Color Block Suede Ankle Zip Boot Purple Orange Brown 6
- Born black leather tall boots sz 7 riding low heel buckles zipper
- Womens Size 7STUART WEITZMAN Littleneck Black Suede Bootie Shoes
- Demonia Huge 3" Vegan Lavender Bat Wing Creepers Punk Goth Mod Womens 6-11
- Gentlemen/Ladies Women Round Toe Ankle Boots quality New products in 2018 best seller
- 1901 Mens Brown Suede Chukka Boot Nordstrom Mens Size 9 1/2 - Brand new w/o box
- Keen Utility Men's Atlanta Cool ESD Steel-Toe Work Shoe Gargoyle 1006979
- Caterpillar Boots Men's Steel Toe 88033 Logger Work Motorcycle Riding Boots 7.5
- Men Gladiator Comfort Platform Flat Open Toe High Top Leather Roma Boots Sandals
- Nine West Womens Anastagia Black Ballet Flats Shoes 7.5 Medium (B,M) BHFO 8380
- Men Football Shoes Male Adult Soccer Match AG TF Antiskid Sneaker Sport Shoes
- Air Jordan 10 Retro Statue of Liberty Size 12 Nike kd lebron
- Clarks Original Desert Boots Mens Dark Brown Suede Ankle Boots Shoes Size 11 US
- ACME Brown Leather Cowboy Boots-8.5D-Stitch Strap-1678 1 71895-Made in USA-Horse
- Converse Chuck Taylor All Star Boat Mens Winter Shoes Trainers Winter Boot
- Fuda Men 8106 TAN Waterproof Work Safety Leather Boots (E,W)
- Under Armour Men's Charged 24/7 NU Running Shoe - Choose SZ/color
- CLARKS Mens Vanek Rise Leather Closed Toe Ankle Safety Boots, Brown, Size 7.5
- New Balance CRT300XE D 300 Court White Men Women Shoes Sneakers CRT300XED
- Christian Louboutin Black New In Box Dollyla 100 Patent Heels 38.5 Formal Shoes Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B)
- ALAÏA Red Bombe 90mm Amarante Satin Studded Ankle Strap Sandal Heel Pumps Size EU 36 (Approx. US 6) Regular (M, B)
- Grey Lavato Boots/Booties Size EU 39 (Approx. US 9) Regular (M, B)
- Nike Zoom LJ 4 Long Jump Track Shoes Spikes Size 11 Volt Pink Black 415339-999
- Invicta Mens Aviator Quartz Stainless Steel Casual Watch, Color:Black (Model: )
- Mr/Ms: Adidas Ultra Boost Parley: Attractive And Durable
- AF1 82 All White Sneakers Size 11 Mens
- AUTHENTIC ADIDAS WOMENS FALCON W CLEAR MINT/NAVY BB9175 SIZE 10
- Nike M2K Tekno Black Off White Obsidian AO3108-003 Mens Size 8.5 Womens Size 10
- Reebok Freestyle HI OG Lux Womens Trainers BD4468
- Women’s 9B COLE HAAN Country Black Leather Motorcycle Mid Calf Riding Boots
- nike dunk high syracuse white orange rare sb lux mag retro qs hi mens rare ds 9
- adidas AW4206 Womens Cloudfoam Super Flex w Running Shoe- Choose SZ/Color.
- Dan Post Snake Skin Cowboy Boots in Women's 5 C - BROWN/BROWN
- NIB Womens Size 10 Hunter Original Tall Tour Gloss Black Rain Boots New $195
- Steve Madden Women's Eton Fashion Boot, Black Leather, 7 M US
- ROMIKA Gina 04 Womens 41 US 10-10.5 Brown Green Leather Mary Jane Comfort Shoes
- CLARKS Womens Sillian Jetay Closed Toe Loafers
- Melissa Incense Bow 12 Plum Flocked Perfumed Meltflex Heels
- tricot COMME des GARCONS Shoes 742457 Black 23ｃｍ
- Thierry Rabotin Women's 1442MR Black Leopard Leather and Fabric Loafer Flat
- ADIDAS GAZELLE WMNS "SUN GLOW" 2017 BB5211
- Nike Air Max 2015 Women's Size 11
- Nike Air Max Thea Womens Style : 861674 Metallic Silver Womens Size 8.5
- MBT Womens Changa Cork Fitness Rocker Leather Mary Janes Comfort Shoes Size 8M
- $79 - EASY SPIRIT Women's ARANZA (Black) CASUAL MARY JANE FLATS / SHOES - 10 M
- Maison Martin Margiela with silver box 26.5
- MEN' CONVERSE SIZE 8
- Fashion trend men's casual leather shoes comfortable shoes+Hollow(size 6-11.5
- Mens Slip On Loafers Flats Round Toe Soft Sole PU Leather Casual Driving Shoes #
- Men's/Women's Vans Mens Av Era 1.5 Sneakers Not so expensive Skilled manufacturing Exquisite workmanship
- Pe-22 New Knee High Synthetic Zipper Women's 3 Inch High Heel Boots Gray 5-
- New ladies Gray flat Round Toe Top/ankle Buckles Sexy Over Knee Boot Size 8.5
- SAN MARINA Bottines talons 11 cm + plateau cuir noir 39 EXCELLENT ETAT
- Gentleman/Lady Moccamocca Black Suede Booties Size 39 service Selected materials Clearance sale
- NEW Sam Edelman Women's Madge Winter Boots Mocha Latte/Madera Sz8M
- Fashion New Suede Leather Mens British Elegant Tassel Slip On Loafers Shoes Size
- Gentleman/Lady Guncheck Resipsa Loafer Beautiful design New design Diversified new design
- Hush Puppies Men's H10864 Venture Black Leather Oxford
- Men's Summer Leather Beach Sandals Breathable Slippers Shoes Leather Slip Ons sz
Ivanka Trump Leopard Pandor Pumps Size US 8 Regular (M, B)
In a more perfect world, intelligence services would aspire to comprehensive coverage of their targets. But in actual practice, physical, organizational, political, and budgetary constraints have traditionally forced them to limit their collection activities to data pertaining to the targeted state’s organization, capabilities, and intentions. More recently, intelligence services have been tasked with gathering financial, economic, and technical data as well; and with the development of remote collection techniques, the amount of raw data collected by major intelligence services has become staggering in both scope and volume.
From a theoretical standpoint, intelligence collection and analysis should not be especially difficult. But given the fact that intelligence services routinely devote a substantial portion of their resources to deception operations designed to deceive their adversaries, Gold Cremena Sparkle Strappy Dress Sandals 565 Nude Pumps Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B)the task is far more difficult than it first appears. Tables of organization and orders of battle can be faked, deployment patterns and readiness indicators manipulated, and communications traffic played for purpose. Indeed, almost any sort of intelligence data can be fabricated and fed to foreign intelligence services through sacrificial spies, dangles, false defectors, and dispatched agents.
This inherent vulnerability to hostile deception operations lays bare what Angleton formally referred to as the Epistemological Problem:Bronx Tan Astra Boots/Booties Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B)Cape Robbin Silver Crystal Block Heel Sandals Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B).
Given the fact that foreign intelligence services routinely mount large and carefully crafted deception operations against us, how can we know what we believe to be true is actually so?
In less guarded moments, he called it “That damnable question.”
Badgley Mischka Blush Gaby Formal Shoes Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B)
As intelligence practitioners will attest, it is a damnable question indeed. Nonetheless, there are two solutions to the problem – one partial, the other complete.
The first solution is to look at intelligence data in terms of a jigsaw puzzle extending across time. Charles by Charles David Latte Suede Women's Helix Platform +gift Pumps Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B)After fitting together as many of the pieces as possible, one may flag those that are known to be true beyond doubt. Subsequent pieces that fit with those may be presumed true, in the absence of contrary evidence.
Although this approach has considerable merit – including especially the way it facilitates intuitive judgments – the results it generates are both probabilistic and tentative. The likelihood that new data may significantly alter the pattern is high.
In contrast, the second solution can provide definitive answers – but only rarely, Sam Edelman Black Circus By Leni-14 Espadrilles 708 Donut Gothere Flats Size US 10 Regular (M, B)when two relatively unlikely events occur simultaneously: 1) a high-level penetration agent confirms the validity of specific intelligence data, and 2) a code break “backstops” the veracity of the confirming agent. In the world of intelligence, certainty depends upon serendipity.
The recruitment of high-level penetration agents is rare, and code breaks are even more so. They occur together perhaps once a decade, and when they do intelligence analysts emerge from their garrets to enjoy a brief moment of clarity. But when the agent is lost or the codes are changed, they are condemned to wander once more through what Angleton termed “The Wilderness of Mirrors” – an Epistemological Hell from which neither truth nor falsehood may be surely obtained.
Reebok Furylite Winter Sneakers Size US 6 Regular (M, B)
Determining the validity of intelligence data thus depends in part on recruiting from the enemy’s ranks senior political office holders or high-ranking government officials, and in part upon breaking their codes. But once affected, these unlikely circumstances open a window to other intriguing possibilities – including, Chelsea Crew Silver Gold Glitter Heels Sandals Size US 10 Regular (M, B)Mephisto Black Croc Sandals Size US 8 Regular (M, B)specifically, offensive counterintelligence operations designed to penetrate, infiltrate, and suborn the target’s intelligence service in order to play it back against the state it serves. The ultimate goal of such operations is to entice or provoke the targeted state into undertaking ruinous and self-destructive actions.Nine West Black Nwemilio Boots/Booties Size US 6 Regular (M, B)Salon Shoes Silver Capri Formal Shoes Size US 5.5 Regular (M, B)
As Angleton observed, successful politicians and senior government officials are a remarkably homogenous lot. For the most part, they derive from roughly comparable social circumstances and share core formative experiences in common. Amalfi Pale Pink Vintage Pumps Size US 9.5 Regular (M, B)Nine West Silver Matteo Ankle Strap Dress Sandals 807 Metallic Pumps Size US 7 Regular (M, B)They attend the same schools – or at least the same types of schools – and are imbued with the same canon. They also hold remarkably similar beliefs and values, and share certain characteristic attitudes regarding the larger world. Together these form something akin to a collective psyche, or what Angleton termed the “Mind of the State.”
If states have minds, they also have states of mind – and as with individuals, it is their state of mind that makes them most vulnerable to deception. For a state of mind is a predisposition to belief or action; and if that predisposition can be accurately gauged,Nine West Gold Rhyan Cross Strap 450 Bronze Sandals Size US 10 Regular (M, B)Betsey Johnson Beige Blue By Briel Slingback Sandals 255 Ivory Pumps Size US 11 Regular (M, B) tempting or provoking the targeted decision-makers to ruin becomes a plausible exercise in perception management.
Ariat Brown/Turquoise Fatbaby Boots/Booties Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B)
If there is a single failing common to decision-makers throughout history, it is an excessive faith in intelligence. For reasons that remain obscure, decision-makers seem unable or unwilling to grasp the implications of the Epistemological Problem Angleton described. Despite ample warnings, they almost invariably place far more credence in intelligence reports than they deserve; and it is upon this most basic failing that offensive counterintelligence plays.
In The Art of War, Sun Tzu wrote “Supreme excellence is to subdue the enemy without fighting” Marc Fisher Gold Verna2 Platform Slingback Bronze Display Pumps Size US 10 Regular (M, B)and argued this end may best be achieved by manipulating the “Golden Threads” of intelligence – that is, the lines of communications that connect agents recruited from within the enemy’s camp to one’s own. The first Golden Thread may be activated by sacrificing deliberately misinformed low-level agents for capture, Cathy Jean Stilettos Formal Shoes Size US 5.5 Regular (M, B)dangling double agents for enemy recruitment, and dispatching false defectors to the enemy’s camp. The second is brought into play by querying the agent-in-place to determine how the enemy decision-makers have interpreted the false information they delivered. If the information evokes the intended state of mind, the false message can be reinforced by repeating the process in different ways. If not, it can be modulated until it does.
By these means offensive counterintelligence operations can create a false picture of reality in the minds of targeted decision-makers, much as an artist paints an image upon a sheet of canvass. Brush stroke by brush stroke, the attacking service can exploit the enemy intelligence service it suborned to systematically manipulate the Mind of the State.
Charles David By Women's Abacus Sandal Nude Wedges Size US 7.5
The many critics of offensive counterintelligence argue that strategic deception operations of the size and scale suggested above are far too complex and complicated to be practical, as they are doomed to eventually collapse under their own weight. Tory Burch Blac Wedges Size US 11 Regular (M, B)The criticism is true at least in part, but nonetheless disingenuous. Intelligence operations of any sort have a relatively short shelf life; and unless shut down by those who initiated them or uncovered by their intended targets, they will ALL eventually collapse for similar cause.
Perhaps more to the point, modern history is strewn with examples of successful strategic deceptions including the TRUST operation of the 1920’s, which saved the nascent Soviet state from ruin; the Soviet-sponsored WIN operation that forced the United States to abandon its post-war efforts to liberate Eastern Europe; and the Anglo-American deception operation that made possible the successful invasion of Normandy in 1944. All of these operations were conducted in the manner outlined above, and each inflicted massive damage upon the states they targeted.
Unfortunately, the United States abandoned its national counterintelligence capability in December of 1974 – and with it, the ability to mount large-scale strategic deception operations. Redefined and re-envisioned by successive administrations, Jeffrey Campbell Taupe Foxy - Wood Platforms Size US 9 Regular (M, B)counterintelligence had been reduced to little more than a security function until the Clinton Administration partially resurrected it after disastrous and overlapping penetrations of the CIA and the FBI were uncovered in the 1990’s. Expanded and reorganized in the aftermath of 9-11, a National Counterintelligence Executive now exists as a semi-autonomous supervisory agency. And yet despite the many long overdue reforms that have been undertaken since 2001, U.S. counterintelligence remains hobbled by an obtuse and legalistic definition, conceptual confusion,L.K. Bennett Patent Black Leather Pumps Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B) tangled jurisdictions, and – above all – by institutional timidity. For while offensive counterintelligence operations are now officially recognized, they remain tightly controlled and rarely sanctioned. They are tactical operations, most often mounted in reprisal.
Despite ample modern precedents, strategic deception operations of the sort advocated by Sun Tzu and refined by Angleton remain beyond the pale. This is unfortunate and – for those that seek to limit the suffering caused by armed conflict – deeply disconcerting.Vince Camuto Brown Boots/Booties Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B)Vince Camuto Black Edorn Ankle High Heel Leathere Boots/Booties Size US 9.5 Regular (M, B)
For in the Great Game of Nations, offensive counterintelligence remains the only plausible means for achieving victory without war. For if only in theory, it is the primary offensive instrument of state.
Published by the Center for Intelligence Studies.Vince Camuto Black Jestan High Heel Sandals Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B)Jimmy Choo Red Satin Slingback Heels 38.5 (58917) Formal Shoes Size US 8
1016 K Street NE. Washington, DC. 20002
202 / 399-0292
Copyright 2009. This paper may be reproduced in part or in whole for civic or educational purposes, provided that context is preserved and full attribution is given